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Bethel University Library

Athletic Training Research Guide

Resources you need as an athletic trainer

Evidence Pyramid



Starting with the top of the pyramid, Filtered evidence includes:

Systematic Reviews

Critically Appraised Topics and Articles

Unfiltered Evidence includes:

Randomized Control Trials, Cohort Studies, Case-Controlled Studies/Case Studies/Reports

The base of the pyramid rests on Background Information and/or Expert Opinion

Free Resources


This only searches free information from websites (like Google for EBP). Search includes:

  • Cochrane Reviews
  • Joanna Briggs
  • DARE
  • AHRQ
  • Guidelines Clearinghouse
  • Many additional sites

Evidence Based Practice Tutorial

Developed by the University of Minnesota Libraries

When clicking through the tutorial, be sure to complete Step 1 through Step 5 by clicking on each individual module following the introduction, as shown below.

Image of tutorial
(above: screen shot of tutorial)

Understanding Evidence Based Practice

Evidence Based Practice and levels of information

What is Evidence Based Practice?  What does it have to do with you?  How can you use Bethel Library resources for EBP?

EPB is basically a method for making clinical decisions or answering clinical questions using the best available evidence in coordination with the expertise of the clinician and the preferences and values of the patient.* 

An important part of EBP is forming a good clinical question and finding and evaluating the evidence relating to the question. See the pyramid below for a quick overview of the ranking of information in EBP.

You can use this guide to help you know what library resources to use for your EBP questions.  Go to the Search EBP Databases tab for more.

Questions to help with critically appraising the evidence

The Critical Appraisal Skills Programme (CASP) provides checklists that may be useful for evaluating different types of evidence. The Systematic Review and Randomised Controlled Trials checklists are linked below: